Drilling fluid for oil exploration

Drilling for oil

Choose reliability, with Yara, the world leader in nitrates

You depend on a steady supply of drilling fluid to avoid interruption of your operations. Any stop in production is extremely expensive. At Yara, we are the world leader in the production of nitrates. We also have a global logistics network, with more than 200 terminals and warehouses around the world. Our production capacity and closeness to your operations mean that by choosing Yara, you can rely on supply wherever you are.

This is why every day, the best oil service companies rely on Yara’s PetroCare to control H2S, prevent acidification in the oil tank, and for drilling fluids. PetroCare can be delivered around the world in liquid or solid form. Yara supplies anywhere in IBC, flexiliner, container or ISO container.

The selection of an acceptable drilling fluid is now more and more linked to the environmental legislation on waste management as well as traditional technical aspects. Disposal of waste drilling fluids and associated contamination is becoming a primary concern worldwide, for example in the USA this issue is regulated at state level, while in Canada it is regulated at federal level. Operators adapt by developing and following Waste minimization, recycling and bioremediation strategies.

Yara’s knowledge of nitrates has allowed it to specifically develop speciality nitrates that can be added to drilling mud (fluid). Primary applications for nitrate today include:

OBMs & SBMs

PetroCare replaces Calcium Chloride in the internal phase. It provides an environmentally friendly solution and reduces waste management issues and related costs.

Clear brine solution

PetroCare can be used as an inorganic flocculant. This application is linked to reactive clays with a high ROP. The main advantage when using this type of fluid is that bit balling and flowline plugging do not occur. PetroCare contains calcium nitrate, which is classified as a “medium clay inhibitor”. Water resulting from dewatering process can be used as a base for preparing other mud systems.

Fracturating fluids:

PetroCare acts as an inhibitor of Sulphate-reducing bacteria during fracturing processes. Speciality nitrates are added in addition to biocide products. Biocide is included to protect Guar Gum and reduce biofilms.

Corin fluid tracer

Thanks to PetroCare, you can determine the presence and extent of possible damage of core samples by invasion of the mud or filtrate from the mud.

Liquid and solid waste where PetroCare has been used can offer a greener solution for waste disposal, for example, Canada has its waste for bioremediation (land spreading). Using Calcium nitrate in place of calcium chloride offers several advantages in this method:

  • Lower acreage required to spread the same volume of waste
  • Nitrate acts to biodegrade any oil left on cuttings and enrich the soil. Saves the need to add additional nutrients to remineralize the soil
  • Nitrates can stimulate bio-reactors used to process waste materials and therefore give a higher output from the process. (New bioremediation processes)

Combat oil reservoir souring

Yara markets Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) reduction solutions for the oil industry for souring prevention and mitigation, and to fight corrosion in pipelines and reservoirs. Workers in this industry are exposed to the dangers of hydrogen sulphide. Independent academic reports, laboratory and field tests promote nitrates to reduce hydrogen sulphide formation and help improve work safety. PetroCare is applied primarily into seawater injectors on the oil field. This is an environmentally friendly solution in comparison with alternatives.

PetroCare offers customers the benefit of Yara’s extensive experience of controling H2S in industrial processes and wastewater treatment plants worldwide. PetroCare is an environmentally friendly solution compared to the alternatives available on the market.

Prevent the formation of H2S, through stimulation of a natural processes

Reservoir souring results when water injection is used for secondary oil recovery, especially in offshore installations where sulphate-rich seawater is used. The lack of oxygen, warm temperatures and the presence of sulphate, stimulates naturally-occurring microbes which then produce toxic hydrogen sulphide (H2S). This action leads sweet oil to sour. Sour oil has a lower market value and the presence of H2S gas at the producer can lead to material damage (MIC corrosion), restrict production rates and lead to serious occupational health issues. Sulphide gases, especially H2S, are dangerous for humans, materials and the environment.

An environmentally friendly solution

PetroCare is dosed into the injected seawater in small concentrations and this promotes the microbes to generate harmless nitrogen gas - rather than harmful sulphide which is produced when the sour conditions prevail. Speciality nitrates change the bacterial environment, so that they no longer produce sulphide gases. Nitrate is a natural substance present in soil, where it is a major nutrient for plants. Yara’s nitrate-based technology is, therefore, a natural, environmentally friendly way to eliminate the problems caused by H2S.

PetroCare is a proven technology against reservoir souring

PetroCare is used worldwide and has been chosen by a number of oil companies as their main souring mitigation strategy for oil fields in the North Sea, Latin America, the Gulf of Mexico, off the coast of West Africa, Russia and the Far East. Published case reports show that where nitrate is applied correctly it can provide a good preventative/ mitigation strategy for H2S generation and for souring control.

To combat reservoir souring, we bring you a complete solution to your site including:

  • Diagnosis of H2S releases
  • Optimized dosing tailored to your needs based on each site’s different parameters
  • Reliable delivery of nitrate salts directly to your site
  • Equipment monitoring with remote control adapted to an oilfield environment
  • Monitoring of H2S emissions

We follow step by step the evolution of your H2S emissions to prevent their release and protect your employees and equipment.